The Center for Disease and Prevention (CDC) recommended the following vaccines for travel to Laos:
Routine Shots: measles/mumps/rubella (MMR) vaccine, diphtheria/pertussis/tetanus (DPT) vaccine, poliovirus vaccine, etc.
Hepatitis A or immune globulin (IG) – in case of exposure through food and water
Hepatitis B -in case of exposure to blood or body fluids, have sexual contact with the local population, or be exposed through medical treatment (e.g., for an accident).
Typhoid –in case of exposure through food or water in rural areas.
Rabies –in case of exposure to animals.
Malaria Pills– only the city of Vientiane is safe. Supposedly, all other areas of Laos are not protected. ***
Regardless, check with your doctor a couple of weeks before you get on your flight.
***Update: Personally, the air is cleaner and fresher in the rural areas, but access to doctors and clinics is still limited outside the capitol.